When flow passes through pipes, pressure losses occur due to the friction between the pipe wall and the fluid. The pressure loss is directly dependent on the surface roughness of the pipe inner wall, and thus on the material used. In addition, the pressure loss is affected by the flow velocity and the cross-sectional area being flowed through.
Knowledge of pressure losses in various pipe elements is a key factor in designing pipe systems. The HM 222 trainer allows the determination by experiment of these important coefficients and the investigation of the pressure curve in typical pipe sections. Experiments can be performed with laminar and turbulent air flow.
The trainer comprises three straight pipe sections made of different materials and with different diameters. Also included are: a pipe section with a pipe angle, a pipe section with six pipe angles, an orifice plate flow meter for volumetric flow rate measurement, and a balance to measure the jet force at the end of the pipe system.
The pressure measuring points in the pipe system are designed as annular chambers and are located directly upstream and downstream of the pipe elements, ensuring a precise pressure measurement. The pressure measuring points are connected in pairs to a differential pressure meter where the respective differential pressure can be read. The volumetric flow rate is displayed on two rotameters with different measuring ranges.